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Terminology for PostQuantum Traditional Hybrid Schemes
UK National Cyber Security Centre
florence.d@ncsc.gov.uk
UK National Cyber Security Centre
michael.p1@ncsc.gov.uk
SEC
PQUIP
InternetDraft
One aspect of the transition to postquantum algorithms in cryptographic protocols is the development of hybrid schemes that incorporate both postquantum and traditional asymmetric algorithms. This document defines terminology for such schemes. It is intended to be used as a reference and, hopefully, to ensure consistency and clarity across different protocols, standards, and organisations.
About This Document
Status information for this document may be found at .
Introduction
The mathematical problems of integer factorisation and discrete logarithms over finite fields or elliptic curves underpin most of the asymmetric algorithms used for key establishment and digital signatures on the internet. These problems, and hence the algorithms based on them, will be vulnerable to attacks using Shor's Algorithm on a sufficiently large generalpurpose quantum computer, known as a Cryptographically Relevant Quantum Computer (CRQC). It is difficult to predict when, or if, such a device will exist. However, it is necessary to anticipate and prepare to defend against such a development. Data encrypted today (2024) with an algorithm vulnerable to a quantum computer could be stored for decryption by a future attacker with a CRQC. Signing algorithms in products that are expected to be in use for many years, and that cannot be updated or replaced, are also at risk if a CRQC is developed during the operational lifetime of that product.
Preparing for the potential development of a CRQC requires modifying established (standardised) protocols to use asymmetric algorithms that are perceived to be secure against quantum computers as well as today's classical computers. These algorithms are called postquantum, while algorithms based on integer factorisation, finitefield discrete logarithms or ellipticcurve discrete logarithms are called traditional cryptographic algorithms. In this document "traditional algorithm" is also used to refer to this class of algorithms.
During the transition from traditional to postquantum algorithms, there may be a requirement for protocols that use both algorithm types. A designer may combine a postquantum algorithm with a traditional algorithm to add protection against an attacker with a CRQC to the security properties provided by the traditional algorithm. They may also implement a postquantum algorithm alongside a traditional algorithm for ease of migration from an ecosystem where only traditional algorithms are implemented and used, to one that only uses postquantum algorithms. Examples of solutions that could use both types of algorithm include, but are not limited to, , , , and .
Schemes that combine postquantum and traditional algorithms for key establishment or digital signatures are often called hybrids. For example:

NIST defines hybrid key establishment to be a "scheme that is a combination of two or more components that are themselves cryptographic keyestablishment schemes" ;

ETSI defines hybrid key exchanges to be "constructions that combine a traditional key exchange ... with a postquantum key exchange ... into a single key exchange" .
The word "hybrid" is also used in cryptography to describe encryption schemes that combine asymmetric and symmetric algorithms , so using it in the postquantum context overloads it and risks misunderstandings. However, this terminology is wellestablished amongst the postquantum cryptography (PQC) community. Therefore, an attempt to move away from its use for PQC could lead to multiple definitions for the same concept, resulting in confusion and lack of clarity.
This document provides language for constructions that combine traditional and postquantum algorithms. Specific solutions for enabling use of multiple asymmetric algorithms in cryptographic schemes may be more general than this, allowing the use of solely traditional or solely postquantum algorithms. However, where relevant, we focus on postquantum traditional combinations as these are the motivation for the wider work in the IETF. This document is intended as a reference terminology guide for other documents to add clarity and consistency across different protocols, standards, and organisations. Additionally, this document aims to reduce misunderstanding about use of the word "hybrid" as well as defining a shared language for different types of postquantum traditional hybrid constructions.
In this document, a "cryptographic algorithm" is defined, as in , to be a "welldefined computational procedure that takes variable inputs, often including a cryptographic key, and produces an output". Examples include RSA, ECDH, MLKEM (formerly known as Kyber) and MLDSA (formerly known as Dilithium). The expression "cryptographic scheme" is used to refer to a construction that uses a cryptographic algorithm or a group of cryptographic algorithms to achieve a particular cryptographic outcome, e.g., key agreement. A cryptographic scheme may be made up of a number of functions. For example, a Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) is a cryptographic scheme consisting of three functions: Key Generation, Encapsulation, and Decapsulation. A cryptographic protocol incorporates one or more cryptographic schemes. For example, TLS is a cryptographic protocol that includes schemes for key agreement, record layer encryption, and server authentication.
Primitives
This section introduces terminology related to cryptographic algorithms and to hybrid constructions for cryptographic schemes.
 Asymmetric Traditional Cryptographic Algorithm:

An asymmetric cryptographic algorithm based on integer factorisation, finite field discrete logarithms, elliptic curve discrete logarithms, or related mathematical problems.
A related mathematical problem is one that can be solved by solving the integer factorisation, finite field discrete logarithm or elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem.
Where there is little risk of confusion asymmetric traditional cryptographic algorithms can also be referred to as traditional algorithms for brevity. Traditional algorithms can also be called classical or conventional algorithms.
 PostQuantum Algorithm:

An asymmetric cryptographic algorithm that is intended to be secure against attacks using quantum computers as well as classical computers.
Postquantum algorithms can also be called quantumresistant or quantumsafe algorithms.
As with all cryptography, it always remains the case that attacks, either quantum or classical, may be found against postquantum algorithms. Therefore it should not be assumed that just because an algorithm is designed to provide postquantum security it will not be compromised.
There may be asymmetric cryptographic constructions that are neither postquantum nor asymmetric traditional algorithms according to the definitions above, but these are out of scope of this document.
 Component Algorithm:

Each cryptographic algorithm that forms part of a cryptographic scheme.
 SingleAlgorithm Scheme:

A cryptographic scheme with one component algorithm.
A singlealgorithm scheme could use either a traditional algorithm or a postquantum algorithm.
 MultiAlgorithm Scheme:

A cryptographic scheme that incorporates more than one component algorithm, where the component algorithms have the same cryptographic purpose.
For example, a multialgorithm scheme may include multiple signature algorithms or multiple Public Key Encryption (PKE) algorithms. Component algorithms could be all traditional, all postquantum, or a mixture of the two.
 PostQuantum Traditional (PQ/T) Hybrid Scheme:

A multialgorithm scheme where at least one component algorithm is a postquantum algorithm and at least one is a traditional algorithm.
 PQ/T Hybrid Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM):

A multialgorithm KEM made up of two or more component algorithms where at least one is a postquantum algorithm and at least one is a traditional algorithm. The component algorithms could be KEMs, or other key establishment algorithms.
 PQ/T Hybrid Public Key Encryption (PKE):

A multialgorithm PKE scheme made up of two or more component algorithms where at least one is a postquantum algorithm and at least one is a traditional algorithm. The component algorithms could be PKE algorithms, or other key establishment algorithms.
The standard security property for a PKE scheme is indistinguishability under chosenplaintext attack, (INDCPA). INDCPA security is not sufficient for secure communication in the presence of an active attacker. Therefore, in general, PKE schemes are not appropriate for use on the internet, and KEMs, which provide indistiguishability under chosenciphertext attacks (INDCCA security), are required.
 PQ/T Hybrid Digital Signature:

A multialgorithm digital signature scheme made up of two or more component digital signature algorithms where at least one is a postquantum algorithm and at least one is a traditional algorithm.
PQ/T hybrid KEMs, PQ/T hybrid PKE, and PQ/T hybrid digital signatures are all examples of PQ/T hybrid schemes.
 PQ/T Hybrid Combiner:

A method that takes two or more component algorithms and combines them to form a PQ/T hybrid scheme.
 PQ/PQ Hybrid Scheme:

A multialgorithm scheme where all components are postquantum algorithms.
The definitions for types of PQ/T hybrid schemes can adapted to define types of PQ/PQ hybrid schemes, which are multialgorithm schemes where all component algorithms are PostQuantum algorithms.
In cases where there is little chance of confusion between other types of hybrid cryptography e.g., as defined in , and where the component algorithms of a multialgorithm scheme could be either postquantum or traditional, it may be appropriate to use the phrase "hybrid scheme" without PQ/T or PQ/PQ preceding it.
 Component Scheme:

Each cryptographic scheme that makes up a PQ/T hybrid scheme or PQ/T hybrid protocol.
Depending on the construction of a PQ/T hybrid scheme or PQ/T hybrid protocol it may or may not be meaningful to define the component schemes as well as the component algorithms. For example, fused hybrids, as defined in , may sufficiently entangle the component algorithms that the component schemes are not relevant.
Cryptographic Elements
This section introduces terminology related to cryptographic elements and their inclusion in hybrid schemes.
 Cryptographic Element:

Any data type (private or public) that contains an input or output value for a cryptographic algorithm or for a function making up a cryptographic algorithm.
Types of cryptographic elements include public keys, private keys, plaintexts, ciphertexts, shared secrets, and signature values.
 Component Cryptographic Element:

A cryptographic element of a component algorithm in a multialgorithm scheme.
For example, in , the client's keyshare contains two component public keys, one for a postquantum algorithm and one for a traditional algorithm.
 Composite Cryptographic Element:

A cryptographic element that incorporates multiple component cryptographic elements of the same type in a multialgorithm scheme. Note that, at the cryptographic element level, the resulting composite cryptographic element is exposed as a singular interface of the same type as the component cryptographic elements.
For example, a composite cryptographic public key is made up of two component public keys.
 Cryptographic Element Combiner:

A method that takes two or more component cryptographic elements of the same type and combines them to form a composite cryptographic element.
A cryptographic element combiner could be concatenation, such as where two component public keys are concatenated to form a composite public key as in , or something more involved such as the dualPRF defined in .
Protocols
This section introduces terminology related to the use of postquantum and traditional algorithms together in protocols.
 PQ/T Hybrid Protocol:

A protocol that uses two or more component algorithms providing the same cryptographic functionality, where at least one is a postquantum algorithm and at least one is a traditional algorithm.
For example, a PQ/T hybrid protocol providing confidentiality could use a PQ/T hybrid KEM such as in , or it could combine the output of a postquantum KEM and a traditional KEM at the protocol level to generate a single shared secret, such as in . Similarly, a PQ/T hybrid protocol providing authentication could use a PQ/T hybrid digital signature scheme, or it could include both postquantum and traditional singlealgorithm digital signature schemes.
A protocol that can negotiate the use of either a traditional algorithm or a postquantum algorithm, but not of both types of algorithm, is not a PQ/T hybrid protocol.
Protocols that use two or more component algorithms but with different cryptographic functionality, for example a postquantum KEM and a preshared key (PSK) are also not PQ/T hybrid protocols.
 PQ/T Hybrid Protocol with Composite Key Establishment:

A PQ/T hybrid protocol that incorporates a PQ/T hybrid scheme to achieve key establishment, in such a way that the protocol fields and message flow are the same as those in a version of the protocol that uses a singlealgorithm scheme.
For example, a PQ/T hybrid protocol with composite key establishment could include a single PQ/T hybrid KEM, such as in .
 PQ/T Hybrid Protocol with Composite Authentication:

A PQ/T hybrid protocol that incorporates a PQ/T hybrid scheme to achieve authentication, in such a way that the protocol fields and message flow are the same as those in a version of the protocol that uses a singlealgorithm scheme.
For example, a PQ/T hybrid protocol with composite authentication could include a single PQ/T hybrid digital signature, with component cryptographic elements being included in a PQ/T hybrid certificate.
In a PQ/T hybrid protocol with a composite construction, changes are primarily made to the formats of the cryptographic elements, while the protocol fields and message flow remain largely unchanged. In implementations, most changes are likely to be made to the cryptographic libraries, with minimal changes to the protocol libraries.
 PQ/T Hybrid Protocol with NonComposite Key Establishment:

A PQ/T hybrid protocol that incorporates multiple singlealgorithm schemes to achieve key establishment, where at least one uses a postquantum algorithm and at least one uses a traditional algorithm, in such a way that the formats of the component cryptographic elements are the same as when they are used a part of a singlealgorithm scheme.
For example, a PQ/T hybrid protocol with noncomposite key establishment could include a traditional key exchange scheme and a postquantum KEM. A construction like this for IKEv2 is enabled by .
 PQ/T Hybrid Protocol with NonComposite Authentication:

A PQ/T hybrid protocol that incorporates multiple singlealgorithm schemes to achieve authentication, where at least one uses a postquantum algorithm and at least one uses a traditional algorithm, in such a way that the formats of the component cryptographic elements are the same as when they are used a part of a singlealgorithm scheme.
For example, a PQ/T hybrid protocol with noncomposite authentication could use a PQ/T parallel PKI with one traditional certificate chain and one postquantum certificate chain.
In a PQ/T hybrid protocol with a noncomposite construction, changes are primarily made to the protocol fields, the message flow, or both, while changes to cryptographic elements are minimised. In implementations, most changes are likely to be made to the protocol libraries, with minimal changes to the cryptographic libraries.
It is possible for a PQ/T hybrid protocol to be designed with both composite and noncomposite constructions. For example, a protocol that offers both confidentiality and authentication could have composite key agreement and noncomposite authentication. Similarly, it is possible for a PQ/T hybrid protocol to achieve certain cryptographic outcomes in a nonhybrid manner. For example describes a PQ/T hybrid protocol with composite key agreement, but with singlealgorithm authentication.
Properties
This section describes some properties that may be desired from or achieved by a PQ/T hybrid scheme or PQ/T hybrid protocol. Properties of PQ/T hybrid schemes are still an active area of research and development, e.g., . This section does not attempt to be comprehensive, but rather covers a basic set of properties.
It is not possible for one PQ/T hybrid scheme or PQ/T hybrid protocol to achieve all of the properties in this section. To understand what properties are required a designer or implementer will think about why they are using a PQ/T hybrid scheme. For example, a scheme that is designed for implementation security will likely require PQ/T hybrid confidentiality or PQ/T hybrid authentication, while a scheme for interoperability will require PQ/T hybrid interoperability.
 PQ/T Hybrid Confidentiality:

The property that confidentiality is achieved by a PQ/T hybrid scheme or PQ/T hybrid protocol as long as at least one component algorithm that aims to provide this property remains secure.
 PQ/T Hybrid Authentication:

The property that authentication is achieved by a PQ/T hybrid scheme or a PQ/T hybrid protocol as long as at least one component algorithm that aims to provide this property remains secure.
The security properties of a PQ/T hybrid scheme or protocol depend on the security of its component algorithms, the choice of PQ/T hybrid combiner, and the capability of an attacker. Changes to the security of a component algorithm can impact the security properties of a PQ/T hybrid scheme providing hybrid confidentiality or hybrid authentication. For example, if the postquantum component algorithm of a PQ/T hybrid scheme is broken, the scheme will remain secure against an attacker with a classical computer, but will be vulnerable to an attacker with a CRQC.
PQ/T hybrid protocols that offer both confidentiality and authentication do not necessarily offer both hybrid confidentiality and hybrid authentication. For example, provides hybrid confidentiality but does not address hybrid authentication. Therefore, if the design in is used with singlealgorithm X.509 certificates as defined in only authentication with a single algorithm is achieved.
 PQ/T Hybrid Interoperability:

The property that a PQ/T hybrid scheme or PQ/T hybrid protocol can be completed successfully provided that both parties share support for at least one component algorithm.
For example, a PQ/T hybrid digital signature might achieve hybrid interoperability if the signature can be verified by either verifying the traditional or the postquantum component, such as the approach defined in section 7.2.2 of . In this example a verifier that has migrated to support postquantum algorithms is required to verify only the postquantum signature, while a verifier that has not migrated will verify only the traditional signature.
In the case of a protocol that aims to achieve both authentication and confidentiality, PQ/T hybrid interoperability requires that at least one component authentication algorithm and at least one component algorithm for confidentiality is supported by both parties.
It is not possible for a PQ/T hybrid scheme to achieve both PQ/T hybrid interoperability and PQ/T hybrid confidentiality without additional functionality at a protocol level. For PQ/T hybrid interoperability a scheme needs to work whenever one component algorithm is supported by both parties, while to achieve PQ/T hybrid confidentiality all component algorithms need to be used. However, both properties can be achieved in a PQ/T hybrid protocol by building in downgrade protection external to the cryptographic schemes. For example, in , the client uses the TLS supported groups extension to advertise support for a PQ/T hybrid scheme and the server can select this group if it supports the scheme. This is protected using TLS's existing downgrade protection, so achieves PQ/T hybrid confidentiality, but the connection can still be made if either the client or server does not support the PQ/T hybrid scheme, so PQ/T hybrid interoperability is achieved.
The same is true for PQ/T hybrid interoperability and PQ/T hybrid authentication. It is not possible to achieve both with a PQ/T hybrid scheme alone, but it is possible with a PQ/T hybrid protocol that has appropriate downgrade protection.
 PQ/T Hybrid Backwards Compatibility:

The property that a PQ/T hybrid scheme or PQ/T hybrid protocol can be completed successfully provided that both parties support the traditional component algorithm, while also using both algorithms if both are supported by both parties.
 PQ/T Hybrid Forwards Compatibility:

The property that a PQ/T hybrid scheme or PQ/T hybrid protocol can be completed successfully provided that both parties support the postquantum component algorithm, while also using both algorithms if both are supported by both parties.
Certificates
This section introduces terminology related to the use of certificates in hybrid schemes.
 PQ/T Hybrid Certificate:

A digital certificate that contains public keys for two or more component algorithms where at least one is a traditional algorithm and at least one is a postquantum algorithm.
A PQ/T hybrid certificate could be used to facilitate a PQ/T hybrid authentication protocol. However, a PQ/T hybrid authentication protocol does not need to use a PQ/T hybrid certificate; separate certificates could be used for individual component algorithms.
The component public keys in a PQ/T hybrid certificate could be included as a composite public key or as individual component public keys.
The use of a PQ/T hybrid certificate does not necessarily achieve hybrid authentication of the identity of the sender; this is determined by properties of the chain of trust. For example, an endentity certificate that contains a composite public key, but which is signed using a singlealgorithm digital signature scheme could be used to provide hybrid authentication of the source of a message, but would not achieve hybrid authentication of the identity of the sender.
 PostQuantum Certificate:

A digital certificate that contains a single public key for a postquantum digital signature algorithm.
 Traditional Certificate:

A digital certificate that contains a single public key for a traditional digital signature algorithm.
X.509 certificates as defined in could be either traditional or postquantum certificates depending on the algorithm in the Subject Public Key Info. For example, a certificate containing a MLDSA public key, as will be defined in , would be a postquantum certificate.
 PostQuantum Certificate Chain:

A certificate chain where all certificate include a public key for a postquantum algorithm and are signed using a postquantum digital signature scheme.
 Traditional Certificate Chain:

A certificate chain where all certificates include a public key for a traditional algorithm and are signed using a traditional digital signature scheme.
 PQ/T Hybrid Certificate Chain:

A certificate chain where all certificates are PQ/T hybrid certificates and each certificate is signed with two or more component algorithms with at least one being a traditional algorithm and at least one being a postquantum algorithm.
A PQ/T hybrid certificate chain is one way of achieving hybrid authentication of the identity of a sender in a protocol, but is not the only way. An alternative is to use a PQ/T parallel PKI as defined below.
 PQ/T Mixed Certificate Chain:

A certificate chain containing at least two of the three certificate types defined in this draft (PQ/T hybrid certificates, postquantum certificates and traditional certificates)
For example, a traditional endentity certificate could be signed by a postquantum intermediate certificate, which in turn could be signed by a postquantum root certificate. This may be desirable due to the lifetimes of the certificates, the relative difficulty of rotating keys, or for efficiency reasons. The security properties of a certificate chain that mixes postquantum and traditional algorithms would need to be analysed on a casebycase basis.
 PQ/T Parallel PKI:

Two certificate chains, one a postquantum certificate chain and one a traditional certificate chain, that are used together in a protocol.
A PQ/T parallel PKI might be used achieve hybrid authentication or hybrid interoperability depending on the protocol implementation.
 MultiCertificate Authentication:

Authentication that uses two or more endentity certificates.
For example, multicertificate authentication may be achieved using a PQ/T parallel PKI.
Security Considerations
This document defines securityrelevant terminology to be used in documents specifying PQ/T hybrid protocols and schemes. However, the document itself does not have a security impact on Internet protocols. The security considerations for each PQ/T hybrid protocol are specific to that protocol and should be discussed in the relevant specification documents.
IANA Considerations
This document has no IANA actions.
Informative References
Hybrid Key Encapsulation Mechanisms and Authenticated Key Exchange
PostQuantum Cryptography pp.206226
A Note on Hybrid Signature Schemes
Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/423
CYBER; Quantumsafe Hybrid Key Exchanges
ETSI TS 103 744 V1.1.1
ITUT X.509 The Directory  Publickey and attribute certificate frameworks
ITUT
PostQuantum Cryptography FAQs
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
NIST SP 800152 A Profile for U. S. Federal Cryptographic Key Management Systems
Information Technology Laboratory
Information Technology Laboratory
Information Technology Laboratory
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure: Algorithm Identifiers for MLDSA
AWS
AWS
sn3rd
Cloudflare
Digital signatures are used within X.509 certificates, Certificate
Revocation Lists (CRLs), and to sign messages. This document
describes the conventions for using the ModuleLatticeBased Digital
Signatures (MLDSA) in Internet X.509 certificates and certificate
revocation lists. The conventions for the associated signatures,
subject public keys, and private key are also described.
Related Certificates for Use in Multiple Authentications within a Protocol
National Security Agency
National Security Agency
National Security Agency
This document defines a new CSR attribute, relatedCertRequest, and a
new X.509 certificate extension, RelatedCertificate. The use of the
relatedCertRequest attribute in a CSR and the inclusion of the
RelatedCertificate extension in the resulting certificate together
provide additional assurance that two certificates each belong to the
same end entity. This mechanism is particularly useful in the
context of noncomposite hybrid authentication, which enables users
to employ the same certificates in hybrid authentication as in
authentication done with only traditional or postquantum algorithms.
Hybrid key exchange in TLS 1.3
University of Waterloo
Cisco Systems
University of Haifa
Hybrid key exchange refers to using multiple key exchange algorithms
simultaneously and combining the result with the goal of providing
security even if all but one of the component algorithms is broken.
It is motivated by transition to postquantum cryptography. This
document provides a construction for hybrid key exchange in the
Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol version 1.3.
Discussion of this work is encouraged to happen on the TLS IETF
mailing list tls@ietf.org or on the GitHub repository which contains
the draft: https://github.com/dstebila/draftietftlshybriddesign.
Composite MLKEM for Use in the Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure and CMS
Entrust Limited
Entrust Limited
OpenCA Labs
DTrust GmbH
Cisco Systems
This document defines PostQuantum / Traditional composite Key
Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) algorithms suitable for use within
X.509, PKIX and CMS protocols. Composite algorithms are provided
which combine MLKEM with RSAKEM and ECDHKEM. The provided set of
composite algorithms should meet most Internet needs.
This document assumes that all component algorithms are KEMs, and
therefore it depends on [ID.ietflampsrfc5990bis] and
[ID.ounsworthlampscmsdhkem] in order to promote RSA and ECDH
respectively into KEMs. For the purpose of combining KEMs, the
combiner function from [ID.ounsworthcfrgkemcombiners] is used.
For use within CMS, this document is intended to be coupled with the
CMS KEMRecipientInfo mechanism in [ID.housleylampscmskemri].
Hybrid signature spectrums
SandboxAQ
Naval Postgraduate School
SandboxAQ
UK National Cyber Security Centre
This document describes classification of design goals and security
considerations for hybrid digital signature schemes, including proof
composability, nonseparability of the component signatures given a
hybrid signature, backwards/forwards compatiblity, hybrid generality,
and simultaneous verification.
Discussion of this work is encouraged to happen on the IETF PQUIP
mailing list pqc@ietf.org or on the GitHub repository which contains
the draft: https://github.com/dconnolly/drafthalepquiphybrid
signaturespectrums
Internet Security Glossary, Version 2
This Glossary provides definitions, abbreviations, and explanations of terminology for information system security. The 334 pages of entries offer recommendations to improve the comprehensibility of written material that is generated in the Internet Standards Process (RFC 2026). The recommendations follow the principles that such writing should (a) use the same term or definition whenever the same concept is mentioned; (b) use terms in their plainest, dictionary sense; (c) use terms that are already wellestablished in open publications; and (d) avoid terms that either favor a particular vendor or favor a particular technology or mechanism over other, competing techniques that already exist or could be developed. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile
This memo profiles the X.509 v3 certificate and X.509 v2 certificate revocation list (CRL) for use in the Internet. An overview of this approach and model is provided as an introduction. The X.509 v3 certificate format is described in detail, with additional information regarding the format and semantics of Internet name forms. Standard certificate extensions are described and two Internetspecific extensions are defined. A set of required certificate extensions is specified. The X.509 v2 CRL format is described in detail along with standard and Internetspecific extensions. An algorithm for X.509 certification path validation is described. An ASN.1 module and examples are provided in the appendices. [STANDARDSTRACK]
The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3
This document specifies version 1.3 of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. TLS allows client/server applications to communicate over the Internet in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery.
This document updates RFCs 5705 and 6066, and obsoletes RFCs 5077, 5246, and 6961. This document also specifies new requirements for TLS 1.2 implementations.
Hybrid Public Key Encryption
This document describes a scheme for hybrid public key encryption (HPKE). This scheme provides a variant of public key encryption of arbitrarysized plaintexts for a recipient public key. It also includes three authenticated variants, including one that authenticates possession of a preshared key and two optional ones that authenticate possession of a key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) private key. HPKE works for any combination of an asymmetric KEM, key derivation function (KDF), and authenticated encryption with additional data (AEAD) encryption function. Some authenticated variants may not be supported by all KEMs. We provide instantiations of the scheme using widely used and efficient primitives, such as Elliptic Curve DiffieHellman (ECDH) key agreement, HMACbased key derivation function (HKDF), and SHA2.
This document is a product of the Crypto Forum Research Group (CFRG) in the IRTF.
Multiple Key Exchanges in the Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)
This document describes how to extend the Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2) to allow multiple key exchanges to take place while computing a shared secret during a Security Association (SA) setup.
This document utilizes the IKE_INTERMEDIATE exchange, where multiple key exchanges are performed when an IKE SA is being established. It also introduces a new IKEv2 exchange, IKE_FOLLOWUP_KE, which is used for the same purpose when the IKE SA is being rekeyed or is creating additional Child SAs.
This document updates RFC 7296 by renaming a Transform Type 4 from "DiffieHellman Group (DH)" to "Key Exchange Method (KE)" and renaming a field in the Key Exchange Payload from "DiffieHellman Group Num" to "Key Exchange Method". It also renames an IANA registry for this Transform Type from "Transform Type 4  Diffie Hellman Group Transform IDs" to "Transform Type 4  Key Exchange Method Transform IDs". These changes generalize key exchange algorithms that can be used in IKEv2.
Acknowledgments
This document is the product of numerous fruitful discussions in the IETF PQUIP group. Thank you in particular to Mike Ounsworth, John Gray, Tim Hollebeek, Wang Guilin, Britta Hale, Rebecca Guthrie, Stephen Farrell, Paul Hoffman and Sofía Celi for their contributions. This document is inspired by many others from the IETF and elsewhere.